École Primaire “Pla del Puig” à Sant Fruitòs, Espagne
By : COLL-LECLERC, ARQUITECTOS
GRANDS PRIX DU DESIGN – 16th edition
Discipline : Architecture
Categories : Public Building / School & Preschool Education Building : Platinum Winner
Due to its location on a plot located on the border between the urban territory of the municipality of Sant Fruitós and the agricultural fields, we designed the Pla del Puig complex based on passive strategies to minimize its environmental impact.
The 2000m2 school is articulated in two main volumes connected by a central passage. Its location on the northern limit of the plot was chosen to relate to the built-up front of the urban core, leaving the rest of the site free towards the south and the rural landscape. The two volumes have different heights, of one and two floors. The highest one houses the primary school spaces, the one-storey one the infant school. The volumetric disarticulation allows the school to integrate with the scale of the built environment, avoiding the formation of an extensive continuous facade built to the north and avoiding noise, also considering that in a second phase the school will be expanded with a new gymnasium located in the same front.
The site slopes-up 6 meters southwards. Taking this into account and the need to respect the access,
we articulate the project in three exterior levels: access, playground and field, organizing the terraces and the existing vegetation of fig and almond trees (which are maintained) adding new deciduous trees to provide shade in summer. The construction technique of terraces found on the site was replicated to allow water filtration. The earthworks for the excavations and the organization of the exterior areas were carried out with a zero balance of new soil.
Energy: We apply passive strategies and achieve an A energy certification of 22.73 kW/m2year and a heating demand of 11.3KWh/m2year, well below the 15 kW/m2/year of the Passivhaus standard:
–Maximization of solar gain in winter. The kindergarten classrooms, hall, dining room and corridors enjoy solar radiation all morning during the winter solstice, considerably reducing heating demand in winter.
–Cross ventilation from May to October, taking advantage of the diurnal thermal oscillation with the consequent reduction in cooling demand.
–Solar radiation control and daylighting. Simulated with Design Builder, the slope angle of the pitched roofs is specially graduated to allow solar radiation to enter the kindergarten classrooms and corridor only in winter and avoid the glare effect. The openings are protected with motorized, vertically adjustable louvers.
–Bioclimatic mechanism: The large central courtyard tempers both the kindergarten classrooms and the large hall and regulates comfort through evapotranspiration.
-The facades are ventilated and light, made of very well insulated wood/cement boards with a transmittance value of 0.27W7m2k. In the openings we achieve µ: 1.64 with low emissivity double glazing and solar factor 0.55.
–We produce 14kWp on-site with photovoltaic solar panels that we share with the neighboring sports center for self-consumption.
–Materials. we have sought to minimize the Co2 footprint with a near-zero earth balance. The structure is exposed and durable concrete with all interior walls reconfigurable made of gypsum panels laminated with recycled fibers between classrooms and natural wood in the corridors. Sound absorption is provided by 100% organic wood fiber boards.